Whether or not you need a visa in addition to a valid passport for your cruise is a common question with a rather complicated answer. There are a few countries where visas are handled by the cruise line on arrival in port. In all other cases, the cruise line may only advise you that you might need one, but they can be rather elusive when it comes to details regarding how to find out for sure and how to get one if you do need it.

The Cruise Critic message boards can be a helpful resource. Search for or ask questions of fellow cruisers who may have recent visa experiences to share regarding specific ports of call.

U.S. citizens can easily look up visa requirements at Travel.State.gov under the "International Travel" tab. Search for each country your ship will visit to see the visa requirements along with a wealth of other information. The tourist visa requirement is displayed in the "Quick Facts" box at the top of the page. Scroll down a little to the specific section for "Entry, Exit and Visa Requirements," which will have details, sometimes including additional information specifically for cruise passengers. Canadian citizens can use a similar site: Travel.gc.ca.

It is important that you have a valid visa for all ports of call that require them, even if you do not plan to disembark. Emergencies, either yours or the ship's, could force a situation that would make a visa unexpectedly necessary.

Here are some countries that currently require visas for U.S. citizens on cruises.

Australia Cruise Visas

U.S. passport holders visiting Australia on a cruise may apply online for an electronic visa for a fee of $20 Australian dollars, to be paid by credit card.

Bahrain Cruise Visas

Bahrain requires a two-week tourist visa, with the application available on the government website.

Brazil Cruise Visas

Brazil's new electronic visitor's visa for U.S. citizens is an improvement over the previous system. Photos are required. The fee is $44.24 payable by credit card.

China Cruise Visas

Visas are required in most instances to enter China, with a few exemptions. Transit exemptions allow a stay of up to 144 hours when you enter China at specific airports or cruise ports from one country and exit one of those ports or airports to a third country. The 144-hour exemption applies to ocean cruises originating or concluding in Shanghai; Beijing has a 72-hour exemption. Some river cruise passengers may also be exempt, but only if they are traveling with a tour company licensed by the Chinese government. Check with your river cruise line to determine if you are exempt. The cost of a 10-year visa is $140 from the consulate.

Egypt Cruise Visas

A visitor's visa is required in Egypt. If you arrive by cruise ship, the visa is usually handled onboard the ship for you. If you arrive by air (as when you are taking a river cruise), you can procure an electronic visa either at the airport or online before you arrive.

Ghana Cruise Visas

A visa is required, but ships stopping in Ghana usually arrange for visas for their passengers.

India Cruise Visas

An electronic visa application is now available online, and though it previously was reported to have caused delays upon arrival in Cochin, Cruise Critic message board members report recent successful entry and exit using the e-visa without delays. The alternatives include a standard 10-year tourist visa or a transit visa for a stay of no more than three days. These two options have online forms but must be printed and processed through an Indian consulate, either in person or through an agency for an additional charge.

Jordan Cruise Visas

A visitor's visa is required in Jordan, but most cruise ships handle the process for you.

Kenya Cruise Visas

Kenya issues either a single-entry or multiple-entry electronic visa, but most cruise ships that call in Kenya will process the correct one for you.

Madagascar Cruise Visas

Visas for cruise passengers stopping in Madagascar are usually handled by the cruise line.

Myanmar Cruise Visas

Myanmar has a new electronic visa procedure available online for $50. The website indicates that you must choose a port of entry from a drop-down list but that you may enter at an alternate port. As none of the ports of entry on the list are cruise ports, it may be safer to allow your cruise ship to process the visa -- an option offered by all of the cruise lines currently calling in Myanmar.

Namibia Cruise Visas

Visas are normally provided by the cruise ship upon arrival in port in Namibia.

Oman Cruise Visas

Oman offers electronic visas for 20 Omani rials (roughly $50), but your ship may also make arrangements for a visa onboard.

Papua New Guinea Cruise Visas

Although Papua New Guinea allows U.S. citizens to obtain a visa on arrival at airports, cruise passengers are considered in transit and are issued a "seaman pass" upon departing the ship.

Qatar Cruise Visas

Passengers on cruises to Doha in Qatar require a tourist visa, which can be obtained online.

Russia Cruise Visas

Passengers on ocean cruises with stops in St. Petersburg and Vladivostok are allowed 72 hours in port without a visa, provided they are with an authorized tour guide at all times. If you plan to tour on your own, a tourist visa is necessary. River cruise passengers with itineraries that include other Russian cities will need a visa. The consensus on the Cruise Critic message boards is that using the service provided by the river cruise line is far easier than filling out the forms on your own.

Sri Lanka Cruise Visas

A tourist visa is required in Sri Lanka and may be obtained online. 

Vietnam Cruise Visas

A tourist visa is required in Vietnam and can be obtained from the ship on ocean cruises. Passengers on river cruises will need a visa in advance. The application may be filled out online, by email or by mail.