Lots to see and do in Edinburgh. An excursion really isn't necessary unless there are crowds to get into Edinburgh Castle. The Royal Mile is a great walk with shops and pubs all along the way. Princes street is where the shuttle dropped us off and it's a short walk to the castle from here - street is parallel to Royal Mile.
A trip to St Andrews is possible from Edinburgh but we didn't do the ship's tour - not enough time included. Instead we booked through "Rabbies" and it was an all day trip - during our 2 night stay post-cruise.
The Caledonian Hilton is used by the cruise line but we booked separately since Hilton was having their summer promotion and it was just 125 GBP per night.
Walking distance from the ship - Bergen is a large town, but you can see most of the "sights" within a very short area. There was a huge fish market at the end of the pier and the old wooden houses still stand to the left of the pier. Lots of quaint shops here - pretty scenery.